NGC 2359 - Thor's Helmet
Thor's Helmet is an emission nebula located in Canis Major. It lies 12,000 light years away from us and its central star is a Wolf-Rayet star which is thought to be in a pre-supernova stage of evolution. This image is my first experience with using a remote rental telescope. https://app.telescope.live has a number of telescopes located around the world that you can sign up to use for imaging sessions (for a fee of course). The rates are pretty reasonable for the quality of the images. This object was imaged from an observatory in Chile. For an image that is only a total of 30 min long, I think it turned out great. It was a lot of fun to process an image that came to me as high quality raw data.

NGC 2070 - Tarantula Nebula
In our local group of galaxies, the Tarantula Nebula is the largest star forming regions as well as the largest Hydrogen II regions. It is so bright that if it were as close to us as the Orion Nebula (1600 Ly), it would produce visible shadows in in daylight. it is 160,000 light years away and is 931 light years in size. This nebula will probably evolve into a massive globular cluster.
Processing this image was a bit difficult. The core region is extremely bright while the outer regions are much dimmer. To partially solve the exposure problem I used 10-minute exposures for the outer region and 5-minute exposures for the core.
NGC 2170 - The Angel Nebula
 
There is a lot going on in this nebula. It was discovered in 1784 by William Herchel. Parts of the nebula include emission, reflection and dark nebulae. 


                              Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile
                              Date: December 16, 2019
                              Mount: Mathis MI-1000
                              Telescope: Planewave CDK24 f/6.6   (CHI-1)
                              Camera: FLI PL9000 @ -25c
                              Exposure: 3 x 10 min each for LRGBHa. Total: 30min.
                              Location: El sauce Observatory, Chile
                              Date: March 22, 2020
                              Mount: Mathis MI-1000
                              Telescope: Planewave CDK24 f/6.6   (CHI-1)
                              Camera: FLI PL9000 @ -25c
                              Exposure: 9 x 10 min LRGB. Total 90 min.
                        Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile
                        Date: March 6, 2021
                        Mount: Mathis MI-1000/1250
                        Telescope:
Planewave CDK24 (CHI-1)                        
                        Camera: FLI ProLine PL 9000 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 6 x 10 min each for Ha and OIII. Total: 1 hr.







Sharpless 2-136 (Sh2-136) The Ghost of Cepheus
The Ghost of Cepheus is a reflection nebula located in Cepheus on the edge of the Cepheus Flare molecular cloud complex. There are several new stars embedded in the nebula itself which give it a brownish color. It is usually referred to as a Globule. This nebula spans about 2 light years across and lies about 1470 light years away. The star right in the middle of the nebula is a proto-star
SpaceX Starlink Satellite Effects on Astrophotography
This was my first encounter with the Starlink satellites. This is a 10 minute image from a group of six through a red filter that are part of the image to the left.
Software developers are going to have to come up with some very powerful programs that can handle these issues. Using CCDStack, it took almost three hours to get this streak processed out enough to be able to use the image.
If the streak is so bright that it saturates the pixels in the camera, then all of the data underneath the streak is lost. That's the problem for both amateur and professional imagers and astronomers.
NGC 2239 (Caldwell 49) - The Rosette Nebula
The Rosette Nebula is a HII region in Monoceros and lies about 5200 light-years away. It is 65 light-years in diameter which is about half the diameter of our own Milky Way galaxy. The stars in the center are an open cluster (NGC) 2237) which is made up of 36 new stars. If you zoom deep into this image and scroll through it you'll find at least an additional 45 galaxies.
This image is different in that the colors are not what we usually see in an image. This object, the Rosette Nebula is very difficult to see in our normal visible light, but taken through different filters, in this case - Hydrogen, Oxygen and Sulphur, we can bring out details of an object that might not normally be visible.
                               Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile                              
                              Date: July 17, 2020
                              Mount: Officina Stellare EQ Mount
                              Telescope: Officina Stellare Pro RC 700 (27" f/8) (SPA-2)
                              Camera: FLI PL16803 23' x 23'   @-25c
                              Exposure: LRGB 6 x 10 min each Total: 1 hr
                              Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile                              
                              Date: July 17, 2020
                              Mount: Officina Stellare EQ Mount
                              Telescope: Officina Stellare Pro RC 700 (27" f/8) (SPA-2)
                              Camera: FLI PL16803 23' x 23'   @-25c
                              Exposure: LRGB 6 x 10 min each Total: 1 hr.
                              Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile CHI-2
                              Date: February 20, 2021
                              Mount: ASA DDM85
                              Telescope:  ASA 500N
(CHI-2)                              
                              Camera: FLI PL16803 @-30c
                              Exposure: SHO 6 x 10 min each Total: 1 hr.







IC 443 (Sh2-248) Jellyfish Nebula
IC 443 also known as the Jellyfish Nebula and Sh3-248 is a galactic supernova remnant (SNR) in the constellation Gemini. It is located near the star Eta Geminorum. Its distance is roughly 5,000 light years from Earth. IC 443 may be the remains of a supernova that occurred 3,000 - 30,000 years ago. The same supernova event likely created its neutron star, the collapsed remnant of the stellar core. IC 443 is one of the best studied cases of supernova remnants interacting with its surrounding molecular clouds.
Another fun image taken with the wonder Telescope Live remotely operated telescopes in Chile. This particular telescope - the Planewave 24" and the
Finger Lakes Instruments FLI PL 9000. This first image is the basic LRGB.
IC 443 (Sh2-248) Jellyfish Nebula
This second image in the Sh2-248 series was taken through just a Hydrogen Alpha filter, commonly referred as Narrow Band imaging. Sometimes with the color images it's really easy to loose the details in the color. This image in Ha looks nice because Black and White gives a much better feel for the details in
the many filaments of hydrogen gas.
IC 443 (Sh2-248) Jellyfish Nebula
This third version of IC 443 is a combination of the LRGB and Hydrogen Alpha (LRGB+Ha). In versions that other folks have done this version might be much more red. I admit that I'm still really new to Narrow Band (NB) processing, so I'm not quite as aggressive as others with more experience will be. However, by keeping the red slightly muted I feel that I can keep more of the details.
                        Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile
                        Date: October 25, 2020
                        Mount: Mathis MI-1000
                        Telescope: Planewave CDK24 f/6.6   (CHI-1)
                        Camera: FLI PL9000 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 8 x 10 min each for LRGBHa. Total: 1 hr 20 min.
                        Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile
                        Date:
October 25, 2020
                        Mount: Mathis MI-1000
                        Telescope: Planewave CDK24 f/6.6   (CHI-1)
                        Camera: FLI PL9000 @ -25c
                       
Exposure: 8 x 10 min each for LRGBHa. Total: 1 hr 20 min.
                        Location: El sauce Observatory, Chile
                        Date:
October 25, 2020
                        Mount: Mathis MI-1000
                        Telescope: Planewave CDK24 f/6.6   (CHI-1)
                        Camera: FLI PL9000 @ -25c
                       
Exposure: 8 x 10 min each for LRGBHa. Total: 1 hr 20 min.







Gum 16
There are two schools of thought as to what this area actually is. One is that it is a still expanding supernova remnant from about 1 million years ago. The other is that it is an evolved HII region. Either way, the consensus is that it is an emission nebula. It lies about 1470 light-years away. 
These three images are my first attempt at narrowband processing. Instead of taking the images in the visual light band, these are taken through Hydrogen Alpha and Oxygen III filters. The Ha or OIII filters were assigned to the RGB channels in various combinations to get the different outcomes. This first one was combined in OHH.
Gum 16
This second image in this Gum 16 series was combined as HOO. I think that this one is my favorite of the three.
Somewhere in this huge complex is the Vela Supernova Remnant.

This region named after its discoverer, the Australian astronomer Colin Stanley Gum (19241960).
Gum 16
This third image was combined in OOH.
This area of Hydrogen and Oxygen gas contain about 32 cometary globules.these are areas of gas of varying densities. The radiation pressures from nearby stars erodes the gas leaving globules that resemble comets. Along with ordinary Bok globules they are associated with star formation.
                        Location: Heaven's Mirror Observatory, Australia
                        Date: January 11, 2021
                        Mount: Paramount MX+
                        Telescope: FSQ-106ED (AUS-2)
                        Camera: FLI PL16083 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 8 x 10 min each for Ha and OIII. Total: 1 hr 20 min.
                        Location: Heaven's Mirror Observatory, Australia                        
                        Date: January 11, 2021
                        Mount: Paramount MX+
                        Telescope: FSQ-106ED
(AUS-2)                        
                        Camera: FLI PL16083 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 8 x 10 min each for Ha and OIII. Total: 1 hr 20 min.
                        Location: Heaven's Mirror Observatory, Australia
                        Date: January 11, 2021
                        Mount: Paramount MX+
                        Telescope: FSQ-106ED (AUS-2)
                        Camera: FLI PL16083 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 8 x 10 min each for Ha and OIII. Total: 1 hr 20 min.







Sh2-308 - The Dolphin Nebula
This nebula is a Hydrogen II region. It was first formed about 70,000 years ago from the Wolf-Rayet star EZ Canis Majoris in the center. These gases are traveling outward at around 3.8 million mph as a result of the star throwing off its outer hydrogen layers in pre-supernova fits. Eventually this star will explode as a supernova and wipe out the nebula. Distance from earth is estimated at between 1800 to 6000 light-years from Earth. Its diameter is around 60 light-years.
This image was taken through a Oxygen III filter. 
Sh2-308 - The Dolphin Nebula
This version of the Dolphin Nebula is a combination of Oxygen III and Hydrogen Alpha filters.
Sh2-308 - The Dolphin Nebula
  Here is another version of the Dolphin nebula. The interesting thing about processing an astro image is that it's very difficult to replicate how you did it the first time. This one has a bit more blue than cyan, and the red Ha regions have been accentuated a bit more.
 
                        Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile
                        Date: December 17, 2020
                        Mount: ASA DDM85
                        Telescope:
ASA 500N (CHI-2)   
                        Camera: FLI PL16803 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 6 x 10 min Ha. Total: 1 hr.
                        Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile
                        Date: December 17, 2020
                        Mount: ASA DDM85
                        Telescope:
ASA 500N (CHI-2)                        
                        Camera: FLI PL16803 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 6 x 10 min each for Ha and OIII. Total: 1 hr.
                        Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile
                        Date: December 17, 2020
                        Mount: ASA DDM85
                        Telescope:
ASA 500N (CHI-2)                        
                        Camera: FLI PL16803 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 6 x 10 min each for Ha and OIII. Total: 1 hr.







Messier 1 - The Crab Nebula (WB)
The Crab Nebula (Messier 1) is a supernova remnant in the constellation Taurus. At its heart is a neutron star that is also a pulsar that is almost 20 miles in diameter and spins at a rate of 30.2 rotations per second. It corresponds with a bright supernova recorded by Chinese astronomers in 1054. This nebula was the first object identified that corresponds with a historical supernova explosion.Scientists are still trying to figure out why this SN remnant has such an unusually irregular shape. Usually, SN remnants have a much more symmetrical, spherical shape. this version of the image is in the visible RGB spectrum.
Messier 1 - The Crab Nebula (HSO)
This version of the Crab Nebula is a narrowband image taken through Hydrogen Alpha, Oxygen III and Sulphur II filters. I tried different combinations of assigning the filters to the RGB channels and this one seemed to turn out the best.
Red = Ha, Green = Sulphur II, Blue = Oxygen III. 
 
NGC 3372 - The Carina Nebula (SHO)
The Carina Nebula was discovered by Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille in 1752 from the Cape of Good Hope. It's four times the size and even brighter than the Great Orion Nebula. It lies about 8,500 light-years from Earth and includes both bright and dark areas of nebulosity as well as numerous other objects. This image was taken with a wide field camera.
Sulphur II = Red, Hydrogen Alpha = Green, Oxygen III = Blue
                        Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile
                        Date: January 9, 2021
                        Mount: ASA Alt-Az Direct Drive
                        Telescope:
1000 (39" RC) (CHI-3)                        
                        Camera: FLI PL16803 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 8 x 10 min LRGB. Total: 1 hr 20 min
                        Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile
                        Date: January 9, 2021
                        Mount: ASA Alt-Az Direct Drive
                        Telescope:
1000 (39" RC) (CHI-3)                        
                        Camera: FLI PL16803 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 8 x 10 min each for Ha and OIII. Total: 1 hr 20 min
                        Location: IC Astronomy Observatory, Spain
                        Date: May 11, 2021
                        Mount:  Astro-Physics 1600
                        Telescope: Officina Stellare RH 200 (CHI-6)
                        Camera: FLI ML16200 @ -20
                        Exposure: 5 x 10 min each for SII, Ha and OIII. Total: 50 min







NGC 7000 - The North America Nebula

This nebula was discovered by William Herschel in 1786. It was cataloged again and photographed by Max Wolf, a pioneer in astrophotography in 1860. He noticed that the nebula resembled the shape of North America. Covering a huge amount of sky, it is about 140 light-years across, 90 light-years north to south and about 2500 light-years distant.
I processed this image in two different ways. This version was combined in the SHO mode. Sulphur assigned to the Red Channel, Ha to the Green Channel and OIII to the Blue Channel. The yellow areas are regions of intense star formation.

NGC 7000 - The North America Nebula
This version was processed in a different way from the previous image. In this one OIII is assigned to the Red Channel, Ha to the Green channel and SII to the Blue Channel (OHS)
NGC 7000 - The North America Nebula
This version is what the North America Nebula looks like when taken through
just the Hydrogen Alpha filter.
                        Location: IC Astronomy Observatory, Spain
                        Date: October 29, 2020
                        Mount: Paramount MX+
                        Telescope: FSQ-106EDX4 (SPA-3)
                       
                        Camera: FLI PL16083
                        Exposure: 6 x 10 min each for Ha, OIII and SII. Total: 1 hr
                        Location: IC Astronomy Observatory, Spain
                        Date: October 29, 2020
                        Mount: Paramount MX+
                        Telescope: FSQ-106EDX4 (SPA-3)
                       
                        Camera: FLI PL16083
                        Exposure: 6 x 10 min each for Ha, OIII and SII. Total: 1 hr
                        Location: IC Astronomy Observatory, Spain
                        Date: October 29, 2020
                        Mount: Paramount MX+
                        Telescope: FSQ-106EDX4 (SPA-3)
                       
                        Camera: FLI PL16083
                        Exposure: 6 x 10 min Ha. Total: 1 hr







NGC 6188 - The Dragons of Ara Nebula (SHO)
The Dragons of Ara is just a small part of a much larger molecular cloud. This part of the nebula is an emission nebula that includes some dark nebula as well. It lies about 4000 light-years away from us and is about 300 light-years in diameter.
IC 2944 - The Running Chicken Nebula (SHO)
The Running Chicken Nebula is an emission nebula located in the constellation Centaurus. It features a number of Bok nodules, although there is no evidence of star formation in any of them. This image is a wider field view of the nebula than the one to the right which is a more zoomed-in look at the same region.
IC 2944 - The Running Chicken Nebula (SHO)
This image is a more zoomed-in look at the same nebula.
Both images used Sulphur, Hydrogen and Oxygen filters instead of the traditional Red, Green and Blue.
                        Location: IC Astronomy Observatory, Spain
                        Date: July 7, 2021
                        Mount: OS EQ
                        Telescope:
Officina Stellare ProRC 700 (SPA-2)                    
                        Camera: FLI PL16083 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 6 x 10 min each for Ha, OIII, SII,and Lum Total: 1 hr
                        Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile
                        Date: July 12, 2021
                        Mount: ASA DDM85
                        Telescope:  ASA 500N (CHI-6)

                        Camera: FLI PL16803 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 3 x 10 min
for Ha, OIII, SII,and Lum Total: 30 min
                        Location: El Sauce Observatory, Chile
                        Date: July 12, 2021
                        Mount: ASA DDM85
                        Telescope:  ASA 500N (CHI-4)

                        Camera: FLI PL16803 @ -25c
                        Exposure: 7 x 10 min
for Ha, OIII, and SII. Total: 1 hr 10 min





Except as noted all images Copyright by Ron Yelton and may not be used without permission.